Pulmonary Embolism

I. Pulmonary Embolism
It occurs when an artery in the lungs becomes blocked. The blockaged is because of the dislodged clot (embolus) that travels to the arterial blood supply of one of the lungs.
A. Causes of Clot Formation:
  • Surgical Procedures
  • Long Periods of Inactivity
  • Increased levels of clotting factors in the blood
  • Certain Medical Conditions (CA, MI)
  • Vein Injury

II. Signs and Symptoms
  • Sudden Shortness of Breath (Active or at Rest)


A. Anatomy of the “Water” (CSF)
Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear colorless fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space and encloses the human brain. It is produced by the ependymal cells in the choroid plexus at a rate of 500milliliter/day. CSF serves as a cushion for the brain, thus, protects the brain from injury. Any condition that can obstruct its circulation and will eventually increase its volume can result to a condition called “Hydrocephalus”.

B. Dissection of the “Water-Head” (Hydrocephalus)
Hydrocephalus, from the Greek word Hydro - “water” and Cephalus -”head”, is a condition resulting from an imbalance between the


Lab. Results
Normal Value
Sodium (Na) 135 – 145 mmol/L
Potassium (K) 3.5 – 5.1 mmol/L
Chloride (Cl) 98 – 107 mmol/L

Basic Instruments in the Operating Room

Hey hey hey. It's my first post in the new and improve jalmzanatomy! It's all about the Operating Room. The basic instruments found on the operating room here in the Philippines.

Basic Instruments in the Operating Room
A. Cutting or Dissecting Instruments
1. Scalpel - A small straight knife with a thin sharp blade used in surgery and dissection.
   a. Handle # 3
   - blade nos. : 10,11,12,15,16 &17
b. Handle # 4
- blade nos. : 20 and above
2. Mayo Scissors

a. Straight Mayo
- Used to cut suture and supplies. Also known as: